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Why Do PTSD Rates Vary Depending On Trauma?

Discussion in 'General' started by Roerich, Jan 27, 2007.

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  1. Roerich

    Roerich M.D.

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    Greetings All,

    I came across this and am sharing with you.

    PTSD rates depend on type of trauma and it's duration

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is unique in medicine being a normal reaction of suffering experienced by anyone, anywhere. The Spanish proverb, "Ojos que no ven, corazón que no siente. Eyes that do not see, heart that does not feel.", says it best. External sensory perceptions, especially visual but also including sound, smell, taste, touch, are heightened when that particular event is full of emotion. Emotion is the recording button in the brain, making sure that the memory we form of that event will be remembered well. Otherwise it would get lost in the myriad of neural connections controlling both our conscious and unconscious data base of those experiences we call life.

    Robert Roerich


    Prevalence of PTSD in General Population

    1. Results range from 1% to 14%. The Epidemiological Catchment Area Study showed lifetime PTSD rates of around 1.3% at two sites. More subjects reported sub-clinical symptoms following a trauma, around 15%.

    2. A survey of 1,007 young adults in an HMO in Detroit showed that 39% were exposed to a traumatic event, 23.6% of those subjects developed PTSD, leading to a lifetime prevalence of 9.2%, 6.0% for males and 11.3% for females.

    B. Prevalence of PTSD Following Specific Traumas

    1. The rates of PTSD following natural disasters vary. Following the volcano eruption of Mt. St. Helen, a population sample of those exposed showed lifetime prevalence of PTSD of 3.6% compared to 2.6% in controls. Following a dam break and subsequent flood at Buffalo Creek, researchers found a 59% lifetime prevalence of PTSD, 25% still met criteria at 14-year follow-up.

    2. For war veterans, rates can vary according to traumatic exposure. Overall, lifetime PTSD rates for Vietnam veterans is 15%. Those exposed to median levels of combat showed rates of 28% compared to 65% among those exposed to the highest levels of combat. For political prisoners and prisoners of war, rates can range from 30% to more than 70%. For torture victims, rates can be as high as 90%.

    3. Among individuals who suffer a violent assault, there is a 20% rate of PTSD. Victims of rape have been found to have rates of PTSD near 50% in some studies. Witnessing a person being killed or seriously injured confers a risk of 7%.

    4. Following a traffic accident, 10 to 30% still have PTSD 6 to 18 months following the accident.

    5. In a group of individuals who experienced a sudden, unexpected death of a close friend or relative, 14% developed PTSD.

    Reference: http://www.medical-library.org/journals4a/trauma.htm
     
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    any ideas to the percentage of people abused on a continual basis?
     
  4. Roerich

    Roerich M.D.

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    Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources

    Child Abuse: Statistics, Research, and Resources

    By Jim Hopper, Ph.D.

    Researcher and Instructor in Psychology at McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School

    (last revised 1/26/2007)

    Dr. Hopper writes:

    "# When thinking about statistics on child abuse, it is helpful to know that the very idea of "child abuse" is controversial.

    * Only recently, and only in particular countries and cultures, has the abuse of children come to be seen as a major social problem and a main cause of many people's suffering and personal problems.

    * Of course children have been abused throughout human history. But for people to think about child abuse as we do now, to create legal definitions and government agencies that can remove children from their homes, and to conduct thousands of research studies on the effects of abuse - these are historically and culturally embedded developments.

    * Some believe that, for the first time in history, we are beginning to face the true prevalence and significance of child abuse. Others worry that many people have become obsessed with child abuse and deny any personal responsibility for their problems while "blaming" them on abuse and bad parenting. (I believe that each view has some validity.)

    * Clearly, then, some very large contexts and controversies shape debates about particular issues concerning child abuse.

    # Statistics on rates of child abuse and neglect are controversial.

    # All statistics on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect are disputed by some experts. (Incidence refers to the number of new cases each year, and prevalence to the percentage of people in a population who have had such experiences.)

    # Why?

    * Complex and subtle scientific issues are involved in studies that generate these statistics.

    * Even the most objective scientific research is imperfect. At least one or two methods used in any study must be chosen by researchers based on opinions and judgements, not just facts and logic. The objectively best methods available may still have limitations.

    * For example, there are important controversies about how to define abuse and neglect. This is true for official government studies and any other research study.

    o The definitions of abuse used in official government studies are based on laws, because government definitions are needed for more than research purposes. They are also needed for purposes like determining whether or not suspected abuse should be reported, investigated, "substantiated" (as actually having occurred), and lead to action by a social service agency or court.

    o In contrast, independent researchers can use different definitions because they have different purposes than government agencies, like understanding the different effects of mild and extreme emotional, physical, and/or sexual abuse.

    * No matter what kind of study it is, small changes in definitions can result in big differences in statistics on abuse and neglect.

    # Some bottom lines:

    * Emotions and moral commitments influence everyone's reasoning and judgement to some extent.

    * Any experts who claim to be without bias are fooling themselves or trying to fool you.

    * The contents of this page are influenced by my values, my informed opinions, and my experiences as a researcher and therapist over many years.

    * This page includes links to Web sites that address these issues and provide statistics, including sites with different statistics and points of view on these issues."
     
  5. Roerich

    Roerich M.D.

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    National Center on Elder Abuse

    National Center on Elder Abuse

    Statistics, Research & Resources

    The field of elder abuse research is still relatively young. While there has been some progress in understanding, there is still much to learn.

    The National Center on Elder Abuse is the major source of available statistics on elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation in the United States. It collects and analyzes national data on cases referred to and investigated by adult protective services, and serves as a resource to investigators worldwide.

    NCEA partners have had a role in such major research undertakings as, National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (1996), Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America, National Research Council Panel to Review Risk and Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect (2003), and Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, (1998).

    NCEA funds the Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly at the University of Delaware to provide extensive access to the published literature relating to elder abuse. The CANE archive includes references and abstracts to over 3,000 journal articles, scholarly papers, and other data sources.

    This page provides links to studies and surveys commissioned by the Center, and other data sources.

    * Statistics: State and National Data
    * Surveys, Reports, and Testimony
    * Research Briefs and Agendas
     
  6. Roerich

    Roerich M.D.

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    Domestic Violence Fact Sheet

    Domestic Violence Fact Sheet

    What is Domestic Violence?

    Domestic violence is abuse committed by a spouse, a former spouse, a fiancee, a boyfriend or girlfriend, and a cohabitant upon another individual. It is estimated that a domestic violence act occurs every 15 seconds somewhere in the United States. That figure translates to over 2.5 million victims per year. This abuse affects the lives of the victim and the children who live within the boundaries of these abusive relationships.

    General Information

    In 1991, 5,745 women in the United States died as a result of homicide.

    * Six in every 10 women who are victims of homicide were murdered by someone they knew. About half of these women were murdered by a spouse or someone with whom they had been intimate.

    * Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women between the ages of 15-44.

    * Every 21 days, a woman is killed by domestic violence.

    * Children are involved in 60 percent of domestic violence cases.

    * More than three million children witness acts of domestic violence each year.

    * Up to 50 percent of all homeless women and children in this country are fleeing domestic violence.

    * One in ten calls made to alert police of domestic violence is placed by a child in the home.

    * More than 53 percent of male abusers beat their children.

    * One of every three abused children becomes an adult abuser or victim.

    * Victims and abusers are found in every social and economic class, race, religious group, and sexual orientation.

    * Factors such as poverty, single-parent households headed by women, and parents with less than a high school education were found to be more common among families suffering abuse.
     
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    wow, i hope you didn't spend a lot of time on that, i was just wondering about the percentage that did/did not get ptsd from child/sexual abuse. i guess that would be a hard one to find numbers for, as those that didn't get ptsd probably wouldn't be sharing it anyway. sorry.
    cathy
     
  8. wildcritter44

    wildcritter44 Active Member

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    Dr Roerich,

    Thank you for the above information. It is very much appreciated.

    D (wildcritter)
     
  9. batgirl

    batgirl I'm a VIP

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    So what happens to the percentages if say, you had experienced a violent assault and seen someone killed? Or had been a veteran and been in a natural disaster, etc? Like I'm just curious from a statistical standpoint. Do you add the 2 percentages together to come up with an average rate? Hope my question makes sense.
     
  10. permban0077

    permban0077 Policy Enforcement Banned

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    Hey doc, thank you for taking the time to post all of that information. Love eye openers and info laid out very simply.
     
  11. permban0077

    permban0077 Policy Enforcement Banned

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    I think I have a clue what you are asking Evie and have wondered the same... Also does it build up until boom? I was involved with Hurricane Rita (I was lucky while seeing my neighbors home leveled), more than a few different assaults and types of, and even self inflicted trauma. I wondered is it possible not to develope PTSD from one thing but would the build up just send you to a breaking point where it all just collapses or are you being even further damaged? Or can it go both ways?
     
  12. cookie

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    gee, i hope that doesn't sound unappreciative, i do appreciate all the information. this forum has more information than i've ever seen. i just thought that was a lot of work. i have a bad habit of putting my foot in my mouth, lol.
     
  13. Roerich

    Roerich M.D.

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    Cathy,

    No need to apologize, I love looking things up and that only took a few minutes. What took me longer was stopping myself from reading everything Harvard researchers have written on the subject. Abuse means different things to different people and many may suffer it and not realize that it is even occurring.

    It may not seem like abuse when it occurs as that child may not have a perspective on what is normal and what is not, what is functional and what is not. Who is to say what is normal in the first place? In that standard deviation curve, there are variations and degrees from one end of the spectrum to the other.

    That is why research is so important. Science observes the phenomenon, gathers data on it, a hypothesis as to cause is entertained, and this is tested with statistical analysis. Even then the study itself is examined to see if it truly gathers new information and whether it is a valid study compared to others. If differences are found within studies it is up to independent researchers to sort that out. Discussion is very important to sort things out.

    It appears that the more severe the trauma ( an attack versus a seduction), the longer it goes on (chronic abuse versus an isolated incident), and the more personal it is ( a trusted family member or friend as perpetrator), the more likely it can result in PTSD, depression, and even suicide or homicide.

    Did you notice the doubling of the PTSD rate from B3 under "Prevalence of PTSD in General Population" in the first section of my reply:

    Witnessing a person being killed or seriously injured confers a risk of 7%.

    to B5:

    In a group of individuals who experienced a sudden, unexpected death of a close friend or relative, 14% developed PTSD.

    7% doubling to 14% if we knew the person versus the death of a stranger?

    Roerich
     
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